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GMAT句子改错语法各考点讲解

2019-04-28 18:11 三立在线 admin

  GMAT句子改错简称:SC,在GMAT江湖里素有“得SC者得Verbal,进而得GMAT700+”之说,因此可以看出SC部分的重要性,但无数同学感慨SC的知识点这么多,要怎样去记弄明白呀?

  今天小编就为同学们带来SC各考点盘点讲解,每个考点我们会从占比、难度系数、例题讲解三个方面来展开。

GMAT句子改错语法各考点讲解

  1、句法结构

  占比:60%-70% 难度:基础

  句法结构是一个最最最基础的考点,也是同学们去搞定长难句的核心,那句子结构是什么,看下面的等式:句子 = 主干 + 修饰;句子的逻辑语义 = 主干意思 + 修饰关系。

  那么句法结构解决的就是主干的问题,这就想到了最基本的5大简单句:

GMAT句子改错语法各考点讲解

  在简单句的基础上,可以通过连词把句子变成合句和复句。连词包括并列连词 & 从属连词,所以并列连词或者分号链接的是合句,从属连词链接的是复句。

  这个时候就会来考察大家对于句子完整性的判断,对连词的使用,标点符号的使用等内容。

  举个例子~

  Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

  A.Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are

  B.Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are

  C。Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are

  D.Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

  E.Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

  选A

  题目分析:

  原句有点长,但主干很简单,去掉长长的插入语having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

  主干为:

  Neuroscientists are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows.

  选项分析:

  A选项:Correct. 本选项在语法和逻辑上均是正确的。

  B选项:and是连词,需要连接两个句子。但在本选项中,and身前的句子没有谓语动词。

  C选项:and身前的句子没有谓语动词错误同(B)。

  D选项:主干和修饰互换,逻辑变。

  E选项:主干和修饰互换,逻辑变。

  2、修饰

  (占比:60% 难度:中等)

  修饰包含四种修饰关系:定语、状语、同位语和插入语

  在修饰当中,经常作为出题点的比如说:短语在句首;逗号doing在结尾,表结果或伴随。

  举个例子:

  By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop prematurely.

  A.tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop

  B。tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and their dropping

  C。the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, which causes needles to change color from deep green to grayish green, and dropping

  D.the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop

  E.the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and then their dropping

  题目分析:

  介词短语放句首做状语,要跟主句的逻辑主语形成合理的逻辑关系,根据语义是adelgid suck sap,所以主句主语因该是adelgid;定语从句修饰名词,doing放句末可做伴随状语或结果状语,修饰句子;

  选项分析:

  A选项。主语是tree growth不能发出suck sap这个动作,语义不合理;

  B选项。同A,逻辑主语错误;添加连词and改变原句语义重心;

  C选项。which引导非限制性定语从句修饰tree growth不合理;to change and dropping不平行;

  D选项。正确,causing做结果状语;

  E选项添加and改变原句语义重心。

  3、逻辑

  (占比:50% 难度:中高等)

  逻辑是一种关系,在SC中体现的是句子的关系,句子与句子间的相互关系,一个句子内部的搭配关系和修饰关系。

  举个例子:

  Turning away from literary realism to write romantic stories about the peasant life and landscape of northern Sweden, in 1909 Selma Lagerl?f was the novelist who became the first woman and was also the first Swedish writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature。

  A。Turning away from literary realism to write romantic stories about the peasant life and landscape of northern Sweden, in 1909 Selma Lagerl?f was the novelist who became the first woman and was also the first Swedish writer to win

  B.She turned away from literary realism and wrote romantic stories about the peasant life and landscape of northern Sweden, and novelist Selma Lagerl?f in 1909 became the first woman as well as the first Swedish writer that won

  C.Selma Lagerl?f was a novelist who turned away from literary realism to write romantic stories about the peasant life and landscape of northern Sweden, and in 1909 she became the first woman in addition to the first Swedish writer winning

  D.A novelist who turned away from literary realism to write romantic stories about the peasant life and landscape of northern Sweden, Selma Lagerl?f became in 1909 the first woman and also the first Swedish writer to win

  E。As a novelist, Selma Lagerl?f turned away from literary realism and wrote romantic stories about the peasant life and landscape of northern Sweden, in 1909 becoming the first woman and also the first Swedish writer that won

  选项分析:

  A选项:分词短语在句首,逻辑主语要立马给出,Selma Lagerl?f逻辑主语前家里时间状语不符合表达习惯。状语in 1909修饰其身后的句子Selma Lagerl?f was the novelist,这是不正确的。不能说SL这个人在1909年才成为小说家,而是SL一直是小说家,到了1909年才获奖。因此,1909应该修饰 Selma Lagerl?f became the first woman。且主干是SL是小说家,获奖做成了修饰,这个句子之间的主次关系不对,主干和修饰互换。

  B选项:as well as虽然可以是连词,但其连接两者的后者在地位上要弱于前者,这点和and不同,and是纯粹的并列。在本题中,两个角色显然没有强弱区别,因此as well as需改为and。另外,She turned away from…and Selma Lagerl?f became…,and增加句子关系。

  C选项:副词in addition to需改为并列连词and,became the first woman和was also the first Swedish write应具有并列关系。另外,and增加句子关系,该错误原理同(B)。

  D选项:Correct. 本选项在语法和逻辑上均是正确的。

  E选项:主次颠倒,逻辑语义变。

  4、平行

  (占比:60% 难度:中高等)

  平行出现的评率很高,不论是OG还是prep,同学们应该都可以感受到这一点

  举个例子:

  First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head; a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and a red eye.

  A.found in the Philippines and that resembles

  B。found in the Philippines and that, resembling

  C.found in the Philippines and resembling

  D.that is found in the Philippines and it resembles

  E.that is found in the Philippines, resembling

  分词的平行 done和doing可以平行

  这种鸟是被发现所以用found,主动的相似所以用resembling

  选C

  最早被发现于30多年前,莉娜的太阳鸟,一种四英寸半长的动物,在菲律宾被发现的,类似于蜂鸟,头上有闪闪发光的金属颜色;胸部中央有一片明亮的橙色斑块,边缘是红色的簇;还有一只红色的眼睛。

  5、比较

  (占比:10% 难度:高等)

  比较比总是让同学们头大,傻傻分不清楚比较对象,不知道出现省略。遇到比较不要慌,我们分为3层走:

  第一层:like和unlike的比较

  Like和unlike后面加名词表比较,不能加句子或者动名词。

  第二层、:AS的比较

  AS 加句子表比较,AS+n不能表比较,是介词作为的意思。

  第三层:than的比较

  Than要注意省略和倒装。

  举个例子:

  Most of the county’s biggest daily newspapers had lower circulation in the six months from October 1995 through March 1996 than a similar period a year earlier。

  A.a similar period

  B.a similar period's

  C.in a similar period

  D.that in a similar period

  E。that of a similar period

  选C

  1995年10月至1996年3月这六个月里,该县最大的日报的发行量大多低于一年前的同一时期。than 的省略,有时间状语或者地点状语时候可以省略。其余选项比较对象不对等。

  6、主谓一致

  (占比:8 % 难度:低)

  举个例子:

  Efforts to the funds available to school districts, a major goal of education reformers and many states in the 1970's, has not significantly reduced the gaps existing between the richest and poorest districts.

  A.has not significantly reduced the gaps existing

  B。has not been significant in reducing the gap that exists

  C.has not made a significant reduction in the gap that exists

  D.have not significantly reduced the gap that exists

  E.have not been significant in a reduction of the gaps existing

  选D

  题目意思:

  20世纪70年代,教育改革者和许多州的一项主要目标-向学区提供资金的努力,并没有显著缩小最富裕和最贫穷地区之间的差距。

  选项分析:

  ABC主谓不一致。

  DE关注逻辑语义:

  D: 努力没有减少差距。 主谓宾

  E:努力不是一个重要的减少。 主系表,逻辑变。

  7、动词形式

  (占比:7 % 难度:低)

  动词形式属于grammar下的考点,动词形式的出题点涉及一下四种:

  ① 时态:默认原句是时态正确,注意时间标志词

  ② 语态:主动由于被动——动作发出者已知 逻辑语义不变

  ③ 情态:can>could>able>ability>capable

  ④ 语气 虚拟 只用判断要不要用虚拟

  举个例子:

  Recent essays by Garrison Keillor, the humorist and host of the public radio show A Prairie Home Companion, describes what might happen if Huns, Goths, and Visigoths were to invade Chicago。

  A。describes what might happen if Huns, Goths, and Visigoths were to invade

  B.describes what would happen if Huns, Goths, and Visigoths invaded

  C.describes what would happen if Huns, Goths, and Visigoths would have invaded

  D。describe what might happen if Huns, Goths, and Visigoths were to invade

  E.describe what happen if Huns, Goths, and Visigoths invade

  选D

  最近,幽默作家、公共广播节目“草原家庭伙伴”主持人加里森·基勒的文章描述了如果匈奴、哥特人和西哥特人入侵芝加哥可能会发生什么。

  essays describe what

  根据主谓一致排除ABC,在DE里选,根据语义是虚拟语气,选D。

  好啦,SC的主要考点帮大家总结完啦,要注意一点,SC考题中往往不是一道题考察一个考点,根据例题大家也可以看出来,需要多个考点综合思考判断,所以同学们需要在熟练掌握每个考点的基础上把这些考点形成一张网状图,而不是零散的存在,希望对大家的备考有所帮助。

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